造纸

The pulp and paper sector is a significant energy user and currently ranks fourth in the industrial sector for its energy use. In 2006, the sector consumed 6.7 EJ of energy, which represents 6% of global industrial energy use. Despite high energy use, the sector has a low CO2 intensity due to extensive use of biomass as fuel (in 2006, the emissions of the sector reached 184 Mt, representing onlly 3% of global emissions in 20061). The total energy saving potential in the sector through improved process efficiency and systems/life cycle improvements has been estimated to be in the range of 2.1-2.4 EJ/year.2

The processes used to produce pulp and to dry paper are the major energy consumers in the industry. The main production facilities are either pulp mills or integrated paper and pulp mills. Integrated mills have better energy efficiency. 

Kraft pulping is the most extensively used chemical pulping process. It produces high-quality fibers for higher paper grades. However, it requires large amounts of heat energy and has a low fiber yield. Kraft mills are able to meet most or all of their energy needs from by-products (i.e. black liquor) and they can even be a net exporter of energy. Similarly, sulfite pulping, which is used for speciality papers, has a high energy consumption but can self-generate a large part of a mill's energy needs from by-products. 

Mechanical pulping produces weaker fibers but it has a high yield, giving it a lower specific final energy demand. Higher efficiencies are enabled by applications such as thermo-mechanical pulping, where heat is recovered at diffent grades. However, as electricity is the main energy used, this technology may have high primary energy demand and CO2 emissions.

Pulp production from recovered fibers requires substantially less energy compared to virgin pulp (the BAT values for recovered fiber is 0.7-3 GJ/t compared to around 14.3 GJ/t for Kraft pulping).1 It is a promising option for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, with estimates projected to be as high as 35%. However, the availability of recovered paper is sometimes limited and resolving this issue will require changes to other parts of the paper production lifecycle.

The amount of energy used by paper machines is generally dependent on the pulp quality and paper grade, and it can show big variations. Integrated mills can achieve higher energy efficiency by eliminating intermediate pulp drying and using better processes.

Application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) can significantly enhance the energy efficiency of pulp and paper industry. The CHP potential in the paper and pulp industry is estimated to be in the range of 0.3-0.6 EJ/year. Typically, the introduction of CHP can result in fuel savings of about 10-20%2 and energy savings of 30%5 compared to traditional technologies.

The IEA believes black-liquor gasification and bio-refinery concepts, advanced paper-drying techniques, increased paper recycling, and carbon capture and storage will play a key role in reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions in industry.4

造纸流程图

A typical mill usually produces several types of pulp or paper, and uses various wood species and different mixes of fiber raw material. Although the specific energy consumption of different product types can be known, the total annual consumption usually fluctuates depending on the distribution of production. There are also differences in the types of production and the subprocesses involved. Collectively, these factors makes benchmarking between different plants a challenge. Further, the impact of different energy efficiency measures on product quality (e.g. tensile strength, freeness, opacity) creates an additional challenge.

Meaningful benchmarking is often possible for mills working with certain types of pulp and paper, using the same type of production, and involving comparable subprocesses.5 The tables below provide best practice values for both stand-alone and integrated pulp and paper mills. 

造纸基准线

World Best Practice Final and Primary Energy Intensity Values for Stand-Alone Pulp Mills1
Raw Material Product Process Fuel Use for Steam
(GJ/ADt)
Steam Exported
(GJ/ADt)

Electricity Use
(kWh/ADt)

Electricity Produced
(kWh/ADt)
Total
(GJ/ADt)
Final Primary* Final Primary* Final Primary*
Non-wood Market Pulp Pulping 10.5 -4.2 400 1212     7.7 10.7
Wood Market Pulp Kraft 11.2   640 1939 -655 -1985 11.1 11
    Sulfite 16   700 2121     18.5 23.6
    Thermo-mechanical   -1.3 2190 6636     6.6 22.6
Paper Recovered Pulp   0.3   330 1000     1.5 3.9

ADt = Air dried metric ton.
*: Primary energy assumes electricity generation, transmission and distribution losses of 67
%

World Best Practice Final and Primary Energy Intensity Values for Stand-Alone Paper Mills1
Raw Material Product Process

Fuel Use for Steam
(GJ/ADt)

Electricity Use
(kWh/ADt)
Total
(GJ/ADt)
Final Primary* Final Primary*
Pulp Uncoated fine (wood free) Paper machine 6.7 640 1939 9.0 13.7
  Coated fine (wood free) Paper machine 7.5 810 2455 10.4 16.3
  Newsprint Paper machine 5.1 570 1727 7.2 11.3
  Board Paper machine 6.7 800 2424 9.6 15.4
  Kraftliner Paper machine 5.9 535 1621 7.8 11.7
  Tissue Paper machine 6.9 1000 3030 10.5 17.8

ADt = Air dried metric ton.
*: Primary energy assumes electricity generation, transmission and distribution losses of 67
%

 

World Best Practice Final and Primary Energy Intensity Values for Integrated Pulp and Paper Mills1
Raw Material Product Process

Fuel Use for Steam
(GJ/ADt)

Electricity Use
(kWh/ADt)
Total
(GJ/ADt)
Final Primary* Final Primary* Final Primary*
Wood Bleached uncoated fine Kraft 14 14 1200 3636 18.3 27.1
  Kraftliner (unbleached) and bag paper Kraft 14 14 1000 3030 17.6 24.9
  Bleached coated fine Sulfite 17 14 1500 3030 22.4 24.9
  Bleached uncoated fine Sulfite 18 17 1200 4545 22.3 33.4
  Newsprint TMP -1.3 18 2200 3636 6.6 31.1
  Magazine paper TMP -0.3 -1.3 2100 6667 7.3 22.7
 
  Board 50% TMP 3.5 -0.3 2300 6364 11.8 22.6
  Board (no de-inking)   8 3.5 900 6970 11.2 28.6
  Newsprint (de-inked)   4 8 1000 2727 7.6 17.8
  Tissue (de-inked)   7 4 1200 3030 11.3 14.9

ADt = Air dried metric ton.
*: Primary energy assumes electricity generation, transmission and distribution losses of 67%. 

脚注

基准线脚注: 

Global paper and paperboard production has grown by more than 50% since 1990. In 2006, annual production totaled 365 Mt.1

The figure below shows the worldwide development of the industry from 1997 to 2002. More information on major pulp and paper producing countries and their production volumes in 2009 are provided here. 

Worldwide concentration of pulp and paper industry7.

Pulp and Paper Industry Concentration Worldwide

 

Canada and the United States are the world’s largest mechanical pulp and chemical pulp producers respectively. China was the world’s largest paper producer in 2009. Germany, Sweden and Finland are the largest European paper producers.2

Between 1990 and 2008, the energy consumption per ton of paper decreased in all the world’s major producing countries except Brazil. The largest reduction was seen in China, where specific consumption has decreased by more than 4% per year since 1990. In Mexico and South Korea energy consumption per ton of paper also decreased sharply over the period (by 4% per year and 3% per year, respectively). Moderate reductions were made in the European Union and Japan (less than 1% per year). In the United States, however, which is the largest producer, specific consumption has surged by 6% per year since 1990.3 Japan and South Korea, on the other hand, have achieved high levels of energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry.2

The share of pulp from recovered fiber ranges from 30% in the Russian Federation through to 52% in the EU-15 and 70% in Japan. Although the upper technical limit for recovered paper use is considered to be 81%, practically the upper limit is closer to 60%.1 There is significant potential to increase paper recycling in India, where levels are currently around 20%.6

Spain, the United Kingdom, Finland, Germany and Italy meet more than 25% of the total electricity demand of their pulp and paper industry using CHP. Additionally, Spain and the United Kingdom have the highest percentage of CHP use in the pulp and paper industry in Europe (although Finland and Germany have the largest installed CHP capacity), with estimated CHP usage rates of 61% and 40% respectively.2

Indian Flag With increased recycling and the greater diffusion of CHP, the IEA estimates potential savings of more than 20% at the current level of energy consumption for the Indian pulp and paper industry.6

行业特性

Top pulp producing countries and their production in 2009.

查看数据

2009 [1]

名称 1000 tons
USA 48329
China 20813
Canada 17079
Brazil 13315
Sweden 11463
Finland 9003
Japan 8506
Russia 7235
合计 135743
返回饼图

2009 [1]

脚注

This section provides information on the various international and national organizations that focus on energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry. 

Description: The CHP Working Group has been inaugurated under the Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership (GSEP), which is another initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial. The primary purpose of GSEP initiative is to substantially cut global energy consumption by encouraging industries and commercial facilities to practice continuous energy efficiency improvements and by establishing public-private partnerships for certain technologies or specific energy-intensive sectors.
Description: The CHP Working Group has been inaugurated under the Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership (GSEP), which is another initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial. The primary purpose of GSEP initiative is to substantially cut global energy consumption by encouraging industries and commercial facilities to practice continuous energy efficiency improvements and by establishing public-private partnerships for certain technologies or specific energy-intensive sectors.
Description: Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a global forum to encourage and initiate programmes that speed up the development of clean energy technologies, to share lessons learned and to promote the global transition towards a clean energy economy. CEM was established at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) conference of parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009.
Description: Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a global forum to encourage and initiate programmes that speed up the development of clean energy technologies, to share lessons learned and to promote the global transition towards a clean energy economy. CEM was established at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) conference of parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009.
Description: The International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA) was founded in 2002. Currently forest and paper associations from 43 countries are united under the ICFPA leadership, representing approximately 90% of the world’s paper production and more than 50% of its wood production. The ICFPA has been active in promoting Sustainable Forest Management, climate change mitigation efforts, recognition of contribution of plantations as carbon sinks and combats illegal logging (ICFPA, 2011a).
Description: The International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA) was founded in 2002. Currently forest and paper associations from 43 countries are united under the ICFPA leadership, representing approximately 90% of the world’s paper production and more than 50% of its wood production. The ICFPA has been active in promoting Sustainable Forest Management, climate change mitigation efforts, recognition of contribution of plantations as carbon sinks and combats illegal logging (ICFPA, 2011a).
Description: Latin America Pulp and Paper Industry Confederation (CICEPLA) is a non-profitable organization that currently represents ten Latin American countries – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Its primary aim is to promote and defend the interests of pulp and paper manufacturers from Latin America. CICEPLA has set permanent working committees which study and share information on: 
Description: Latin America Pulp and Paper Industry Confederation (CICEPLA) is a non-profitable organization that currently represents ten Latin American countries – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Its primary aim is to promote and defend the interests of pulp and paper manufacturers from Latin America. CICEPLA has set permanent working committees which study and share information on: 
Description: 《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC or FCCC) 是1992年6月3日至14日在里约热内卢召开的联合国环境与发展会议(UNCED)(简称地球峰会)上制定的国际环境公约。该公约的目标是将大气中温室气体的浓度稳定在防止气候系统受到人为干扰并造成危险的水平上。 《联合国气候变化框架公约》是基于《京都议定书》的清洁发展机制(CDM)项目和联合履行(JI)项目的主要协调机构,旨在通过“碳汇交易”减少温室气体排放。《联合国气候变化框架公约》的门户网站提供了清洁发展机制项目和联合履行项目的详细信息。
Description: 联合国工业发展组织(UNIDO)是联合国系统中的专门机构,其宗旨之一是促进和加速发展中国家和经济转型国家实现工业可持续性发展。联合国工业发展组织的重点领域之一是促进环境的可持续发展。联合国工业发展组织(UNIDO)已经开展了几次工业领域能源效率和二氧化碳减排研讨会,在ISO能源管理体系标准(ISO 50001)的制定中起了关键性作用。 联合国工业发展组织开展了多项各工业领域能源效率的研究,并完成相应的研究报告,包括钢铁、水泥、制浆造纸业及化工和石化。
Description: 联合国工业发展组织(UNIDO)是联合国系统中的专门机构,其宗旨之一是促进和加速发展中国家和经济转型国家实现工业可持续性发展。联合国工业发展组织的重点领域之一是促进环境的可持续发展。联合国工业发展组织(UNIDO)已经开展了几次工业领域能源效率和二氧化碳减排研讨会,在ISO能源管理体系标准(ISO 50001)的制定中起了关键性作用。 联合国工业发展组织开展了多项各工业领域能源效率的研究,并完成相应的研究报告,包括钢铁、水泥、制浆造纸业及化工和石化。
Description: 资源、能源和旅游部就澳大利亚资源、能源和旅游行业,为澳大利亚政府提供相应建议和政策支持。澳大利亚资源、能源和旅游部编制并发布相关政策,以提高澳大利亚的国际竞争力,这符合环境责任和可持续发展原则。
Description: 资源、能源和旅游部就澳大利亚资源、能源和旅游行业,为澳大利亚政府提供相应建议和政策支持。澳大利亚资源、能源和旅游部编制并发布相关政策,以提高澳大利亚的国际竞争力,这符合环境责任和可持续发展原则。
Description: In 1997, the Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association (BRACELPA) was founded as the successor of the National Association of Pulp and Paper Manufacturers. The association is responsible for the institutional representation of the sector nationally and globally. BRACELPA’s headquarters are in Sao Paulo, Brazil. BRACELPA members account for all the Brazilian pulp production and approximately 80% of the Brazilian paper production.
Description: In 1997, the Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association (BRACELPA) was founded as the successor of the National Association of Pulp and Paper Manufacturers. The association is responsible for the institutional representation of the sector nationally and globally. BRACELPA’s headquarters are in Sao Paulo, Brazil. BRACELPA members account for all the Brazilian pulp production and approximately 80% of the Brazilian paper production.
Description: The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Brazil (ABTCP) was established with the purpose of raising the technical standard of the paper manufacturers in Brazil, in order to create the basis for a sustainable industry. The association has more than a thousand members. It also disseminates and publishes specialised information about production in general (ABTCP, 2011a). The ABCPT was first established as ABCP in 1967 (ABTCP, 2011b).
Description: The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Brazil (ABTCP) was established with the purpose of raising the technical standard of the paper manufacturers in Brazil, in order to create the basis for a sustainable industry. The association has more than a thousand members. It also disseminates and publishes specialised information about production in general (ABTCP, 2011a). The ABCPT was first established as ABCP in 1967 (ABTCP, 2011b).

Description: The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada (PAPTAC) was founded in 1915 and has 3000 members. It is an independent, not-for-profit association. PAPTAC has the following objectives:
Description: The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada (PAPTAC) was founded in 1915 and has 3000 members. It is an independent, not-for-profit association. PAPTAC has the following objectives:
Description: The China National Household Paper Industry Association (CNHPIA) is a countrywide organization under the China Paper Association. Its headquarters are in Beijing. The association was established in 1993 to manage the drastic growth in the production and consumption of household paper, exchange information and coordinate the industry’s development. The association has 400 domestic and 22 international members (CNHPI, 2011).
Description: The China National Household Paper Industry Association (CNHPIA) is a countrywide organization under the China Paper Association. Its headquarters are in Beijing. The association was established in 1993 to manage the drastic growth in the production and consumption of household paper, exchange information and coordinate the industry’s development. The association has 400 domestic and 22 international members (CNHPI, 2011).
Description: The China Paper Association (CPA) was formed in 1992 and is located in Beijing, China. CPA is a nationwide association of the paper industry. The association has more than 620 members, including companies, corporations, groups of companies, research institutes, colleges and universities and manufacturing organizations.
Description: The China Paper Association (CPA) was formed in 1992 and is located in Beijing, China. CPA is a nationwide association of the paper industry. The association has more than 620 members, including companies, corporations, groups of companies, research institutes, colleges and universities and manufacturing organizations.
Description: The China Technical Association of Paper Industry (CTAPI) is China’s largest state-owned agency serving China’s paper industry. CTAPI functions under the supervision of the China Association of Science and Technology (CAST) and the China National Light Industry Council (CNLIC). CTAPI is still the main organization supporting China’s paper industry.
Description: The China Technical Association of Paper Industry (CTAPI) is China’s largest state-owned agency serving China’s paper industry. CTAPI functions under the supervision of the China Association of Science and Technology (CAST) and the China National Light Industry Council (CNLIC). CTAPI is still the main organization supporting China’s paper industry.
Description: 工业生产力研究所为工业企业和政府提供节能最佳实践,降低能源成本,打造低碳未来。作为一个非营利性机构,工业生产力研究所分别在中国、印度、美国和欧盟都设有办公室,它提供包括技术、政策和融资在内的集成性能源服务包。
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: 国家发展和改革委员会(NDRC)是国务院的组成部门,是综合研究拟订经济和社会发展政策,进行经济总量平衡,指导总体经济体制改革的宏观调控部门((中华人民共和国)国家发展和改革委员会,2011) 。
Description: 国家发展和改革委员会(NDRC)是国务院的组成部门,是综合研究拟订经济和社会发展政策,进行经济总量平衡,指导总体经济体制改革的宏观调控部门((中华人民共和国)国家发展和改革委员会,2011) 。
Description: The Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E) is recognized as Europe’s leading network for climate and energy issues. CAN-E has 129 member organizations in 25 European countries. CAN-E works to prevent anthropogenic climate change and to promote sustainable energy policy in Europe.
Description: The Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E) is recognized as Europe’s leading network for climate and energy issues. CAN-E has 129 member organizations in 25 European countries. CAN-E works to prevent anthropogenic climate change and to promote sustainable energy policy in Europe.
Description: Based in Brussels, the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a non-profit organization that groups the European pulp and paper industry and streamlines its achievements and its products’ benefits. Using the CEPI platform, the paper industry increases its visibility and acts on emerging challenges, making contributions on behalf of the industry. The 800 enterprises which are members of CEPI represent 26% of world paper products production (CEPI, 2011b).
Description: Based in Brussels, the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a non-profit organization that groups the European pulp and paper industry and streamlines its achievements and its products’ benefits. Using the CEPI platform, the paper industry increases its visibility and acts on emerging challenges, making contributions on behalf of the industry. The 800 enterprises which are members of CEPI represent 26% of world paper products production (CEPI, 2011b).
Description: 工业生产力研究所为工业企业和政府提供节能最佳实践,降低能源成本,打造低碳未来。作为一个非营利性机构,工业生产力研究所分别在中国、印度、美国和欧盟都设有办公室,它提供包括技术、政策和融资在内的集成性能源服务包。
Description:  欧洲委员会总局(DG)的工业企业部旨在推动欧盟强劲、可持续和包容性增长的发展战略。因此,它正致力于强化欧洲的工业基地,加快向低碳经济过渡的进程,并推动以创新为手段,产生新的增长点,以满足社会的需求。
Description:  欧洲委员会总局(DG)的工业企业部旨在推动欧盟强劲、可持续和包容性增长的发展战略。因此,它正致力于强化欧洲的工业基地,加快向低碳经济过渡的进程,并推动以创新为手段,产生新的增长点,以满足社会的需求。
Description: The aim of the Finnish Forest Industry Federation (FFIF) is to make Finland a competitive and innovative environment for the forest industry’s production activities, jobs and investments. The forest industry is pioneering the bio-economy in Finland. The members of the Finnish Forest Industry Federation encompass pulp, paper and paperboard manufacturers of Finland as well as about 80% of all wood product enterprises, such as sawmills and plywood mills (FFIF, 2011a).
Description: The aim of the Finnish Forest Industry Federation (FFIF) is to make Finland a competitive and innovative environment for the forest industry’s production activities, jobs and investments. The forest industry is pioneering the bio-economy in Finland. The members of the Finnish Forest Industry Federation encompass pulp, paper and paperboard manufacturers of Finland as well as about 80% of all wood product enterprises, such as sawmills and plywood mills (FFIF, 2011a).
Description: The Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute India (CPPRI) was established in 1980 as a national level institute to promote R&D in the field of pulp and paper. It is an autonomous body under the administrative control of the government’s Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Industry. CPPRI currently has assets of INR. 30 Crores. The objective of the institute is to encourage the global competitiveness of the Indian paper industry and to focus its research and work on the areas of (CPPRI, 2011a):
Description: The Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute India (CPPRI) was established in 1980 as a national level institute to promote R&D in the field of pulp and paper. It is an autonomous body under the administrative control of the government’s Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Industry. CPPRI currently has assets of INR. 30 Crores. The objective of the institute is to encourage the global competitiveness of the Indian paper industry and to focus its research and work on the areas of (CPPRI, 2011a):
Description: 印度工业联合会- Sohrabji Godrej绿色商业中心(CII –Godrej GBC) 是印度工业联合会10个卓越商务中心之一。 CII - 戈瑞德绿色商业中心为工业企业提供绿色建筑、能源效率、水资源管理、环境管理、可再生能源、绿色企业孵化器及气候变化等领域的咨询服务。它鼓励利益相关方采取环保措施并加快市场转型,为印度到2015年成为全球绿色企业的领导者之一铺路。 中心已为工业企业开展了各种关于能源效率的有价值的研究,特别关注水泥业和制浆造纸业。相关研究的刊物可从该机构的网站上购买。与全国水泥和建筑材料委员会共同制作了印度工业联合会- Godrej绿色商业中心报告,本报告为即将由国际能源署/世界可持续发展工商理事会 –水泥生产业可持续发展倡议共同开展的印度水泥行业低碳技术路线图的研究奠定基础。
Description: 印度工业联合会- Sohrabji Godrej绿色商业中心(CII –Godrej GBC) 是印度工业联合会10个卓越商务中心之一。 CII - 戈瑞德绿色商业中心为工业企业提供绿色建筑、能源效率、水资源管理、环境管理、可再生能源、绿色企业孵化器及气候变化等领域的咨询服务。它鼓励利益相关方采取环保措施并加快市场转型,为印度到2015年成为全球绿色企业的领导者之一铺路。 中心已为工业企业开展了各种关于能源效率的有价值的研究,特别关注水泥业和制浆造纸业。相关研究的刊物可从该机构的网站上购买。与全国水泥和建筑材料委员会共同制作了印度工业联合会- Godrej绿色商业中心报告,本报告为即将由国际能源署/世界可持续发展工商理事会 –水泥生产业可持续发展倡议共同开展的印度水泥行业低碳技术路线图的研究奠定基础。
Description: 印度工业联合会 (CII)是一个非政府、非盈利,由工业界自行引导和管理的组织。印度工业联合会拥有超过8100个私营企业和国营企业直接会员,包括中小型企业,印度工业联合会拥有超过90,000个来自约400个全国和地区行业协会的间接会员。印度工业联合会致力于为印度的工业发展创造并维护有利的环境,并与工业界和政府以咨询和协商的方式建立合作关系。 在世界可持续发展工商理事会/水泥行业可持续发展倡议及国际金融公司的支持下,印度工业联合会的绿色商业中心和国家水泥和建筑材料委员会( NCBM )为印度水泥生产业制定了节能技术报告,用于印度水泥生产业低碳技术发展线路图的制定(世界可持续发展工商理事会, 2012)。 CII work related to Pulp and Paper Industry
Description: The Indian Paper Manufacturers Association (IPMA) represents the paper sector in India. IPMA members comprise large integrated paper mills from the private and public sectors representing all varieties of paper located in every region and using traditional fibres such as food crops and bamboo as well as unconventional raw materials like recyclable waste paper, agro-residues etc. IPMA members account for approximately one-third of industrial paper and paperboard production.
Description: The Indian Paper Manufacturers Association (IPMA) represents the paper sector in India. IPMA members comprise large integrated paper mills from the private and public sectors representing all varieties of paper located in every region and using traditional fibres such as food crops and bamboo as well as unconventional raw materials like recyclable waste paper, agro-residues etc. IPMA members account for approximately one-third of industrial paper and paperboard production.
Description: The Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association (IPPTA) was established in 1964. It is an organization of professionals from the pulp and paper, newsprint and allied industries. It is located in Saharanpur, India. IPPTA caters to the needs of the Indian paper industry and publishes quarterly journals, which contain technical articles related to pulp and paper technology. The articles are submitted by eminent authors from the paper and allied industries, various research institutions from India and abroad.
Description: The Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association (IPPTA) was established in 1964. It is an organization of professionals from the pulp and paper, newsprint and allied industries. It is located in Saharanpur, India. IPPTA caters to the needs of the Indian paper industry and publishes quarterly journals, which contain technical articles related to pulp and paper technology. The articles are submitted by eminent authors from the paper and allied industries, various research institutions from India and abroad.
Description: 工业生产力研究所为工业企业和政府提供节能最佳实践,降低能源成本,打造低碳未来。作为一个非营利性机构,工业生产力研究所分别在中国、印度、美国和欧盟都设有办公室,它提供包括技术、政策和融资在内的集成性能源服务包。
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: The Japan Paper Association (JPA) was created by major paper companies to promote the development of the Japanese paper and pulp industry. The association conducts the following activities (JPA, 2011a):
Description: The Japan Paper Association (JPA) was created by major paper companies to promote the development of the Japanese paper and pulp industry. The association conducts the following activities (JPA, 2011a):
Description: The Japan Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (Japan TAPPI) is an organization of pulp and paper scientists, engineers and managers in industries, governmental institutions and academia. Japan TAPPI was established to contribute to the advancement of the paper industry in Japan and the world. In total, 205 companies are members of Japan TAPPI and its headquarters are in Tokyo, Japan (JTAPPI, 2011a). The goals of TAPPI are (JTAPPI, 2011b):
Description: The Japan Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (Japan TAPPI) is an organization of pulp and paper scientists, engineers and managers in industries, governmental institutions and academia. Japan TAPPI was established to contribute to the advancement of the paper industry in Japan and the world. In total, 205 companies are members of Japan TAPPI and its headquarters are in Tokyo, Japan (JTAPPI, 2011a). The goals of TAPPI are (JTAPPI, 2011b):
Description: 新能源产业技术综合开发机构 (NEDO) 是日本最大的公共研发管理机构,它与工业部门、教育部门和政府部门合作,协同开展技术研发项目。自1980年成立以来, 新能源产业技术综合开发机构特别关注能源和环境领域。新能源产业技术综合开发机构努力推进技术研发,以进一步提高新能源的利用效率并降低其成本,因而在工业技术研发方面发挥了重要的作用。通过强推进“绿色创新” 领域的发展,新能源产业技术综合开发机构正努力在技术材料、生物技术和机械系统等领域中发展、切实落实和推广以市场为导向的中长期关键技术。
Description: 新能源产业技术综合开发机构 (NEDO) 是日本最大的公共研发管理机构,它与工业部门、教育部门和政府部门合作,协同开展技术研发项目。自1980年成立以来, 新能源产业技术综合开发机构特别关注能源和环境领域。新能源产业技术综合开发机构努力推进技术研发,以进一步提高新能源的利用效率并降低其成本,因而在工业技术研发方面发挥了重要的作用。通过强推进“绿色创新” 领域的发展,新能源产业技术综合开发机构正努力在技术材料、生物技术和机械系统等领域中发展、切实落实和推广以市场为导向的中长期关键技术。
Description: 日本能源经济研究所(IEEJ)旨在开展能源供应和终端设备用能等领域的研究活动。其工作重点是分析能源问题,提供作为日本制定能源政策依据的基础数据、信息和报告。日本能源经济研究所发布了一份关于采用节能技术的能源密集型企业(包括钢铁业、水泥业、制浆造纸业)的CO2减排潜力的报告。( 日本能源经济研究所, 2006)。  
Description: The Russian Association of Pulp and Paper Organizations and Enterprises (RAO-BUMPROM) is the non-commercial association established in 1999 by the Russian pulp and paper enterprises and institutes. This is a voluntary association of organizations and companies concerned with the manufacture of pulp and paper, as well as the scientific and research institutes. The strategic goal of RAO-BUMPROM is to harmonize business relations between government institutions and society.
Description: The Russian Association of Pulp and Paper Organizations and Enterprises (RAO-BUMPROM) is the non-commercial association established in 1999 by the Russian pulp and paper enterprises and institutes. This is a voluntary association of organizations and companies concerned with the manufacture of pulp and paper, as well as the scientific and research institutes. The strategic goal of RAO-BUMPROM is to harmonize business relations between government institutions and society.
Description: The American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) is the nationwide trade association of the forest products industry and enhances public policies that promote a strong and sustainable US forest products industry in the global arena. AF&PA’s member enterprises account for more than 75% of the US’s pulp, paper-based packaging and wood building materials. The association’s membership represents a diverse spectrum of the industry.
Description: The American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) is the nationwide trade association of the forest products industry and enhances public policies that promote a strong and sustainable US forest products industry in the global arena. AF&PA’s member enterprises account for more than 75% of the US’s pulp, paper-based packaging and wood building materials. The association’s membership represents a diverse spectrum of the industry.
Description: The Environmental Defence Fund (EDF) is a group of dedicated scientists, economists, attorneys and other professionals. This group tackles the most urgent environmental threats to the climate, oceans, ecosystems and people’s health. To get results, EDF combines science, economics and law in its work. EDF also provides consultation for energy efficiency and smart grids to achieve a low-carbon energy future. EDF has its main offices in New York City and Washington DC (EDF, 2011a).
Description: The Environmental Defence Fund (EDF) is a group of dedicated scientists, economists, attorneys and other professionals. This group tackles the most urgent environmental threats to the climate, oceans, ecosystems and people’s health. To get results, EDF combines science, economics and law in its work. EDF also provides consultation for energy efficiency and smart grids to achieve a low-carbon energy future. EDF has its main offices in New York City and Washington DC (EDF, 2011a).
Description: 工业生产力研究所为工业企业和政府提供节能最佳实践,降低能源成本,打造低碳未来。作为一个非营利性机构,工业生产力研究所分别在中国、印度、美国和欧盟都设有办公室,它提供包括技术、政策和融资在内的集成性能源服务包。
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(LBNL)是美国能源部科学办公室支持的国家实验室之一,由美国加州大学(UC)进行管理,主要进行跨多科学学科的公开研究。 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室出版了大量有关一般领域及特定工业领域节能技术和措施的刊物 (covering, among others, cement, iron and steel, pulp and paper and glass industries),尤其是针对中国、美国和印度。Some of LBNL's key publications and tools are listed in the resources section below.
Description: The Paper Industry Management Association (PIMA) is the leading association for management professionals in the paper and pulp industry. The aim of the association is to contribute to the strength of the international pulp and paper community by providing its members with resources to address relevant industry issues and to develop their management and leadership skills. PIMA works under the Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) and is located in Norcross, Georgia, USA (PIMA, 2011).
Description: The Paper Industry Management Association (PIMA) is the leading association for management professionals in the paper and pulp industry. The aim of the association is to contribute to the strength of the international pulp and paper community by providing its members with resources to address relevant industry issues and to develop their management and leadership skills. PIMA works under the Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) and is located in Norcross, Georgia, USA (PIMA, 2011).
Description: 美国国家环境保护署(EPA或USEPA)是美国联邦政府的一个独立行政机构,主要进行环境评估、研究和教育。负责维护和执行各类环境计划的国家标准。美国国家环境保护署编制和出版了大量有关工业用能效率和环境保护面的重要刊物和指南。  
Description: 美国能源部先进制造办公室(AMO),前身为美国工业技术项目(ITP,技术路线项目的后续项目),旨在提高美国工业部门的能源利用效率。先进制造办公室帮助企业研究、开发和利用创新技术,以提高企业能源效率、减少对环境的排放量,最终获得竞争优势(美国能源部/ 先进生产办公室 2011年)。

项目描述: 

This section contains information on the various international and national programs that focus on energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry.

Description: 澳大利亚政府能效机遇项目鼓励大型用能企业提高其能效,要求能效企业确定、评估并公开汇报具有成本效益的节能机会。澳大利亚能效机遇项目(EEO)于2005年启动,通过要求各大型用能企业确定、评估、公开汇报具有成本效益的节能机会,鼓励他们提高能效。
Description: 澳大利亚政府能效机遇项目鼓励大型用能企业提高其能效,要求能效企业确定、评估并公开汇报具有成本效益的节能机会。澳大利亚能效机遇项目(EEO)于2005年启动,通过要求各大型用能企业确定、评估、公开汇报具有成本效益的节能机会,鼓励他们提高能效。

Description: 欧盟-碳排放交易体系(EU-ETS) 是一个限额交易体系,限制了工厂、发电厂和其他设施的总温室气体排放量。总排放量在这个限制范围内的企业可获得排放配额,在需要的时候,可出售或购买彼此的排放配额。年底,企业必须拥有足够的排放配额,否则需要交大量罚款。如果一家企业成功降低了温室气体排放量,则该企业可以继续保留排放配额以备后用或出售给另一家需要配额的企业。 欧盟-碳排放交易体系涵盖水泥业、制浆造纸业、钢铁业、玻璃、砖和陶瓷业以及发电厂、炼油厂和焚烧厂。 该计划鼓励工业企业减少碳排放,为他们可观的经济收益提供了发展空间,并敦促他们承担社会可持续发展的责任。欧盟-碳排放交易体系覆盖了来自30个国家和地区约11,000个发电站和工业工厂(欧盟-碳排放交易体系 , 2011) 。欧盟委员会为2012年后的欧盟-碳排放交易体系发布有关统一自由分配配额方法的具体行业指导。相关行业的基准数据如下:
Description: 欧盟-碳排放交易体系(EU-ETS) 是一个限额交易体系,限制了工厂、发电厂和其他设施的总温室气体排放量。总排放量在这个限制范围内的企业可获得排放配额,在需要的时候,可出售或购买彼此的排放配额。年底,企业必须拥有足够的排放配额,否则需要交大量罚款。如果一家企业成功降低了温室气体排放量,则该企业可以继续保留排放配额以备后用或出售给另一家需要配额的企业。 欧盟-碳排放交易体系涵盖水泥业、制浆造纸业、钢铁业、玻璃、砖和陶瓷业以及发电厂、炼油厂和焚烧厂。 该计划鼓励工业企业减少碳排放,为他们可观的经济收益提供了发展空间,并敦促他们承担社会可持续发展的责任。欧盟-碳排放交易体系覆盖了来自30个国家和地区约11,000个发电站和工业工厂(欧盟-碳排放交易体系 , 2011) 。欧盟委员会为2012年后的欧盟-碳排放交易体系发布有关统一自由分配配额方法的具体行业指导。相关行业的基准数据如下:
Description: 印度碳交易机制(PAT)是一个旨在建立一个市场基础的促进能效改善的交易机制。PAT是在提高能源效率国家计划(NMEEE)下出台的。ECA指定的能耗企业必须参与该计划。 计划实施初期指定了9个部门,其中7个属于工业部门,包括水泥业、钢铁业、制浆造纸业等,电力部门和铁路部门也包括在内。该机制涵盖了来自不同领域合计共700多家工厂。 该机制为参与的企业分别设置了强制的能源目标,允许企业以签订白色承诺证书的形式,购买其他参与企业多余的节能量,以达到节能目标。PAT将为白色承诺证书打造一个国内市场,以确保达到总体节能目标时的成本效益。该机制的第一阶段是三年。PAT是由印度电力部下属的能源效率局(BEE)负责制定并实施,并由新成立的能源效率服务有限公司(EESL)负责监管。
Description: 印度碳交易机制(PAT)是一个旨在建立一个市场基础的促进能效改善的交易机制。PAT是在提高能源效率国家计划(NMEEE)下出台的。ECA指定的能耗企业必须参与该计划。 计划实施初期指定了9个部门,其中7个属于工业部门,包括水泥业、钢铁业、制浆造纸业等,电力部门和铁路部门也包括在内。该机制涵盖了来自不同领域合计共700多家工厂。 该机制为参与的企业分别设置了强制的能源目标,允许企业以签订白色承诺证书的形式,购买其他参与企业多余的节能量,以达到节能目标。PAT将为白色承诺证书打造一个国内市场,以确保达到总体节能目标时的成本效益。该机制的第一阶段是三年。PAT是由印度电力部下属的能源效率局(BEE)负责制定并实施,并由新成立的能源效率服务有限公司(EESL)负责监管。
Description: 更好的工厂项目是一项自愿行动,其中工业工厂可通过注册成为志愿者,致力于在10年多的时间内降低能源强度25%。参与企业可获得美国能源部(DOE)的认可和技术支持。更好的工厂项目建立在以往立即节能先锋项目的基础上,立即节能先锋项目于2009年成立,旨在到2017年实现工业能源强度降低25%。更好的工厂项目的主要项目要求与立即节能先锋项目相同。
Description: 更好的工厂项目是一项自愿行动,其中工业工厂可通过注册成为志愿者,致力于在10年多的时间内降低能源强度25%。参与企业可获得美国能源部(DOE)的认可和技术支持。更好的工厂项目建立在以往立即节能先锋项目的基础上,立即节能先锋项目于2009年成立,旨在到2017年实现工业能源强度降低25%。更好的工厂项目的主要项目要求与立即节能先锋项目相同。
Description: 美国卓越能源绩效项目是一项旨在实现能源效率持续改进的同时维持竞争力并为企业提供工业设施路线图的认证项目。该项目将提供一个全球公认的透明体系,以检验能源绩效改进情况和能源管理实践。预计卓越能源绩效项目将于 2012年在美国各地启动。美国卓越能源绩效项目的核心内容是通过实施ISO 50001能源管理体系以及一些附加要求,以实现能源绩效的改善。 为鼓励工业设施更好地改进能源绩效,对于认证合作伙伴申请单位,将根据其能源绩效改进水平,相应颁发银奖、金奖和白金奖。根据以下两种“能源途径” 来审核参与企业的能源绩效:
Description: 先进制造办公室(AMO)是美国政府为制造业开发和部署新型高效节能技术的首要项目。 (先进制造办公室的前身为工业技术项目)。

Energy Management System Structure

Industrial energy efficiency can be greatly enhanced by more effectively managing plant operations and processes. Experience shows that companies and sites with stronger energy management programs gain greater improvements in energy efficiency than those that lack good procedures and management practices focused on the continuous improvement of energy performance.
 
An Energy Management System (EnMS) provides a framework to manage energy use and promote continuous improvement. It helps with assessment, planning, and evaluation procedures, all of which are critical to realizing and sustaining the potential energy efficiency gains of new technologies or operational changes.
 
A sound energy management program is required to create a foundation for positive change and provide guidance on managing energy throughout an organization. Continuous improvements to energy efficiency therefore typically only occur where there is strong organizational commitment. The key elements of a strategic EnMS is depicted in the figure on the right. 
 
There are a number of guidelines aimed at helping companies to establish an effective EnMS - including from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the recent ISO 50000 series by the International Standards Organization. Although the details differ, these guidelines promote continuous improvement of energy efficiency through: 
 
  • organizational practices and policies;
  • team development;
  • planning and evaluation;
  • tracking and measurement;
  • communication and employee engagement and;
  • evaluation and corrective measures (US EPA, 2010).

While an EnMS can help organizations achieve greater savings through a focus on continuous improvement in energy efficiency, it does not guarantee energy savings or carbon dioxide reductions. To achieve cost savings, an EnMS must be combined with effective plant energy benchmarking and appropriate plant improvements. 

This page will be updated with examples of EnMs implementation in the pulp and paper industry.